Planning, Law and Economics: The Rules We Make for Using Land (RTPI Library Series)
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If you want to download this book, click link in the last page 5. You just clipped your first slide! It examines the main challenges of cities to advance sustainable urban development, and reviews the main policies and measures in place to address them.
This includes urban policies for land use, sustainable transport and buildings, and waste and water management, as well as the role of multi-level governance, investment and finance. Cities play a disproportionately large role in the economic and environmental performance of countries. For example, uncontrolled urban sprawl and outmoded transport systems can exacerbate pollution and associated environmental risks and socio-economic costs.
Policy and investment decisions in urban areas thus have a strong influence on achieving national environmental and green growth goals.
New Zealand is one of the least densely populated countries in the world, but also one of the most urbanised. The challenge for New Zealand cities is, therefore, to accommodate larger populations while making more efficient use of space and infrastructure, and enhancing environmental sustainability and well-being. Many cities have committed to sustainable urban development 2 and established environmental performance goals. Several cities adopted the vision of a more compact form, with the aim to reap economic and social benefits from agglomeration and to reduce potential environmental impacts of urban sprawl.
However, institutional fragmentation, a complex urban planning system with poor linkages between land use, transport and infrastructure policies, and lack of community support have prevented significant progress towards this objective. New Zealand is a highly urbanised country, even though it hosts few large cities by international standards.
Sustained population growth has led to bottlenecks in transport, water and social infrastructure, and it has contributed to an overheated property market, notably in Auckland. Most New Zealand cities are expanding to accommodate their growing populations. In the fastest-growing cities, the rate of urban expansion was slower than population growth, meaning that average population density the number of residents per square kilometre of urbanised land has increased. However, urban expansion outpaced population growth in a number of smaller cities, including Dunedin, Nelson and the Napier-Hastings urban area.
Even though some cities have become denser overall, New Zealand cities remain relatively low density by global standards. Rapid increase of urban sprawl i. However, low-density and sprawling cities are often associated with heavy reliance on private motor vehicles with associated GHG emissions and local air pollutants ; higher costs for infrastructure and public service provision; and greater demand for open space and farmland to the detriment of biodiversity.
OECD makes an important distinction between dense cities which have a high number of residents per square kilometre and compact cities. The latter encompasses a wider set of characteristics, such as dense and proximate development e. A compact urban form can bring about economic benefits e. If proper account of externalities to air, water and land can be incorporated in the cost of services from the outset, the sustainability of urban environments can be significantly improved. However, it is a much more difficult task to retrofit existing urban settings.
Growing concern about air pollution, climate change and pressure on scarce environmental resources has caused many city authorities to question the long-run sustainability of their urban form. In addition to managing urban sprawl, several cities try to improve resource efficiency and reduce environmental pressure by changing residential densities in certain areas. However, ex post densification can be politically difficult because changes to regulatory requirements effectively alter the bundle of property rights and expectations of homeowners. Increasing residential density thus needs to be approached carefully to ensure buy-in from the affected population.
In addition, simply doubling the population of a given area without changing any other parameters can intensify negative factors such as ambient air pollution, congestion or lack of green open space. Indeed, many cities feature high population densities without experiencing any of the economic, environmental or social benefits ascribed to the compact city. Urban mobility in New Zealand is characterised by an overwhelming reliance on private car use.
The level of active transport modes e.
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- Planning law and economics : the rules we make for using land!
Alternative transport modes e. Upgrades of the rail network helped increase rail patronage from 2. The transport sector has also driven much of the increase in total GHG emissions since in these three cities or counteracted emission reductions in other sectors. Some city and regional councils have developed strategies and policies on climate change.
Other cities, including Auckland and Wellington, have more favourable climatic conditions, benefiting from strong winds that help disperse air pollutants. Exceedances occur typically in winter, when emissions from wood and coal burning for domestic heating are high, as well as in areas close to state highways and arterial roads which are heavily used by diesel-power heavy vehicles.
- The policy and planning framework;
- International Planning Organisations Database.
- Der Vamp - 1: Sehnsucht und Leidenschaft (German Edition).
- Institutional framework and multi-level governance.
- Planning, Law and Economics: The Rules We Make for Using Land.
- Die Christianisierung der Franken (German Edition).
In Auckland, air quality has improved significantly due to a shift away from coal and wood for both domestic heating and industrial use which contributed to a slight reduction in PM 10 and PM 2. This target will be challenging to achieve given projected increases in vehicle PM 10 emissions. A number of cities started implementing policies to reduce waste generation and encourage recycling. However, lack of comprehensive data impedes benchmarking of cities and the tracking of progress towards locally defined objectives.
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Auckland estimates that 1. Monitoring progress towards these targets will require significant improvement in data collection and reporting. This is because many New Zealand cities are located near the coast and hence downstream of freshwater streams, where nutrient and sediment pollution from agriculture accumulate. Urban activities add to this pollution through municipal wastewater discharges; stormwater discharges; sediment loss and stream modification from land development; industrial discharges; and contamination from roads and vehicle use.
Urban drinking water quality is good and compliance with national drinking water standards has increased over the past few years, reflecting tighter regulation and more investment in water treatment.
Planning, Law and Economics: The Rules We Make for Using Land
However, sewerage and stormwater infrastructure have not kept pace with population growth and are operating at capacity limits in several fast-growing cities including Auckland and Hamilton. This leads to frequent overflows of largely untreated wastewater and stormwater into watercourses and harbours, with severe impacts on water quality. However, per capita water consumption varies significantly across the country. Cities charging by volume e. Auckland, Tauranga and Nelson register significantly lower consumption levels than those that do not e.
New Zealand cities have some significant remnant habitats. However, loss and fragmentation of native habitats from urban growth and invasive species put many species under threat. By contrast, Auckland and some other cities have better birdlife than some rural areas. This is due to major pest eradication programmes and pest-free bird sanctuaries such as the Karori Sanctuary in Wellington and on some islands in Auckland harbours , as well as better control of national pests like possums Meurk, Blaschke and Simcock, ; Auckland Council, c.
Institutional and governance arrangements have important consequences for the economic, social and environmental performance of cities. The better governance arrangements work for co-ordinating policies across policy fields and jurisdictions, the better the outcomes in the three above-mentioned areas. Hamilton , some govern the entire urban area plus the surrounding rural area e. Dunedin and other cities spread over the administrative boundaries of several territorial authorities e.
Wellington and Auckland until The mismatch of administrative and geographical boundaries creates governance challenges, particularly for managing development in peri-urban areas and city- or region-wide infrastructure planning and investment. The city of Tauranga, for example, has traditionally managed growth at the city fringe by moving the local authority boundary. The Environment Court has to resolve quite a few inconsistencies between regional and district land-use plans. The new body inherited all the regulatory and budgetary powers from the local councils and regional council.
As such, Auckland is one of the few OECD metropolitan areas with a governance body that can impose binding regulations across the entire urban area.laublogvolni.tk
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It has enabled the council to tackle issues beyond the capacity of previously individual councils, such as advancing network investments in the area of sewerage and wastewater management. The commission linked these challenges mainly to fragmented governance and weak regional leadership, as well as poor community engagement. The new Auckland Council, elected for the first time in , has the same powers and functions as other councils in New Zealand, yet significantly greater scale and capability.
The mayor was given unprecedented powers, including to prepare the budget, set committee structures and appoint advisory boards. Key functions and assets were placed into fewer council-controlled commercial organisations CCOs to improve service delivery, integrated planning and fiscal performance. In , a Sustainability Office was created within the Auckland Council to mainstream sustainability within the council and its associated agencies.
Auckland Council engages in different international city networks related to sustainable urban development. CCOs deliver a significant service on behalf of Auckland Council, or own or manage public assets.
Fulong Wu, Planning for Growth: Urban and Regional Planning in China,
The reform reduced the number of CCOs from 40 to 6. Following the Auckland reform, local authorities began to realign themselves throughout the country, but no similar unitary structure has yet been formed. Nevertheless, weak regional governance and leadership continue to undermine coherent region-wide urban planning. Several city and district councils have formed groups to ease co-operation and joint planning for the common urban area; Wellington and the regions of Canterbury and Waikato, for example, have established mayoral forums.
The New Zealand government should encourage municipalities to overcome institutional and land-use planning fragmentation. This could be done by customising the Auckland institutional reform to other larger urban areas or by building partnerships among municipalities, under various institutional forms. In mid, the government presented a bill to Parliament aimed at facilitating local collaboration.
For example, over , metropolitan areas that have governance bodies such as the Auckland Council experienced a decline in urban sprawl and feature, on average, lower concentrations of fine particulate matters in the air. Central governments play a decisive role in urban development, setting policy direction through legislation and national strategies and programmes. They also influence urban development via the funding and policy decisions of its agencies. Nonetheless, there has been a trend towards tighter central government control over local government, reduced local discretion and exemptions from key legislation in some regions.
At the national level, no dedicated ministry or unit is assigned to deal with cities; responsibilities are split across a range of ministries and national authorities. In the early s, a new portfolio of Urban Affairs was created, but this received no separate resourcing and was abolished when the current administration came to office. While few OECD member countries have dedicated ministries to urban development, an increasing number use formal mechanisms to improve both horizontal and vertical co-ordination.